Monday, May 25, 2020
Nikee. Apple. Covergirl. Weight Watchers. Why do all these seemingly unrelated names sound familiar? That answer is simple: advertising. Advertising, a prodigious business, is a way to market a product or service to the public consumer through TV, internet, billboards, and other outlets. However, this over exposure to unnecessary and unwanted propaganda brings about personal struggles, since ads scream about the absolute desire for self impeccability while simultaneously destroying the spirits of those who listen. This industryÃ¢â¬â¢s image of Ã¢â¬Å"normalcyÃ¢â¬ often alters oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self image. Although many see the benefits of consumer marketing, the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s depiction of idealized perfection reveals that manipulating people through advertisementsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In addition, advertising feeds from mob mentality, convincing people a product will change their lives by deeming it fashionable or sophisticated. It bypasses logical thinking to take contr ol of how people view themselves and their Ã¢â¬Å"need for esteem. People want and need to be respected and we need to feel good about ourselves. And this is where much advertising lives, often because we are selling products that people really do not need. LÃ¢â¬â¢OrealÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËBecause youÃ¢â¬â¢re worth itÃ¢â¬â¢ is the perfect exampleÃ¢â¬ (Madigan 83). For this reason, expectations of a person are manipulated to fit the wants of the industry to sell products. These people are affected since they feel as if they have no choice in what to wear, how their body should appear to others, and which brands they buy. It all comes down to the need to be apart of something bigger, instead of sticking out from the crowd. EXAMPLE SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢s deeply ingrained standards for women created by the media demonstrate the corruption of self image as seen through ads from the 1950s that feed off of insecurities. History demonstrates the obsession with perfection by showing how women were viewed before and after advertising influence, Ã¢â¬Å"Men wouldn t look at me when I was skinnyÃ¢â¬ ¦ Since IÃ¢â¬â¢ve gained 10 pounds, I have all the dates I wantÃ¢â¬ (Lewis). Ads such as this swayed women from the 1950s to 1960s to physically appear in a
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Scaled scores are a type of exam score. They are commonly used by testing companies that administer high stakes exams, such as admissions, certification and licensure exams. Scaled scores are also used for K-12 Common Core testing and other exams that assess student skills and evaluate learning progress. Raw Scores vs. Scaled Scores The first step to understanding scaled scores is to learn how they differ from raw scores. A raw score represents the number of exam questions you answer correctly. For example, if an exam has 100 questions, and you get 80 of them correct, your raw score is 80. Your percent-correct score, which is a type of raw score, is 80%, and your grade is a B-. A scaled score is a raw score that has been adjusted and converted to a standardized scale. If your raw score is 80 (because you got 80 out of 100 questions correct), that score is adjusted and converted into a scaled score. Raw scores can be converted linearly or nonlinearly. Scaled Score Example The ACT is an example of an exam that uses linear transformation to convert raw scores to scaled scores. The following conversation chart shows how raw scores from each section of the ACT are transformed into scaled scores.Ã Raw Score English Raw Score Math Raw Score Reading Raw Score Science Scaled Score 75 60 40 40 36 72-74 58-59 39 39 35 71 57 38 38 34 70 55-56 37 37 33 68-69 54 35-36 - 32 67 52-53 34 36 31 66 50-51 33 35 30 65 48-49 32 34 29 63-64 45-47 31 33 28 62 43-44 30 32 27 60-61 40-42 29 30-31 26 58-59 38-39 28 28-29 25 56-57 36-37 27 26-27 24 53-55 34-35 25-26 24-25 23 51-52 32-33 24 22-23 22 48-50 30-31 22-23 21 21 45-47 29 21 19-20 20 43-44 27-28 19-20 17-18 19 41-42 24-26 18 16 18 39-40 21-23 17 14-15 17 36-38 17-20 15-16 13 16 32-35 13-16 14 12 15 29-31 11-12 12-13 11 14 27-28 8-10 11 10 13 25-26 7 9-10 9 12 23-24 5-6 8 8 11 20-22 4 6-7 7 10 18-19 - - 5-6 9 15-17 3 5 - 8 12-14 - 4 4 7 10-11 2 3 3 6 8-9 - - 2 5 6-7 1 2 - 4 4-5 - - 1 3 2-3 - 1 - 2 0-1 0 0 0 1 Source: ACT.org The Equating Process The scaling process creates a base scale that serves as a reference for another process known as equating. The equating process is necessary to account for differences between multiple versions of the same test. Although test makers try to keep the difficulty level of a test the same from one version to the next, differences are inevitable. Equating allows the test maker to statistically adjust scores so that the average performance on version one of the test is equal to average performance on version two of the test, version three of the test and so on. After undergoing both scaling and equating, scaled scores should be interchangeable and easily comparable no matter which version of the test was taken.Ã Equating Example Lets look at an example to see how the equating process can impact scaled scores on standardized tests.Ã Imagine that say you and a friend are taking the SAT. You will both be taking the exam at the same test center, but you will be taking the test in January, and your friend will be taking the test in February. You have different testing dates, and there is no guarantee that you will both take the same version of the SAT. You may see one form of the test, while your friend sees another. Although both tests have similar content, the questions are not exactly the same. After taking the SAT, you and your friend get together and compare your results. You both got a raw score of 50 on the math section, but your scaled score is 710 and your friends scaled score is 700. Your pal wonders what happened since both of you got the same number of questions correct. But the explanation is pretty simple; you each took a different version of the test, and your version was more difficult than his. To get the same scaled score on the SAT, he would have needed to answer more questions correctly than you. Test makers that use an equating process use a different formula to create a unique scale for each version of the exam. This means that there is no one raw-to-scale-score conversion chart that can be used for every version of the exam. That is why, in our previous example, a raw score of 50 was converted into 710 on one day and 700 on another day. Keep this in mind as you are taking practice tests and using conversion charts to transform your raw score into a scaled score. Purpose of Scaled Scores Raw scores are definitely easier to calculate than scaled scores. But testing companies want to make sure that test scores can be fairly and accurately compared even if test takers take different versions, or forms, of the test on different dates. Scaled scores allow for accurate comparisons and ensure that people who took a more difficult test are not penalized, and people who took a less difficult test are not given an unfair advantage.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Analysis of Gender: Objectification of Women, Emotional Literacy and Gender Roles Introduction Gender in American society is a hot topic right now on many levels. The spotlight on how women have been portrayed in our culture now shines on the negative messages being taken to heart and embodied by our women. These are the very same images and messages being taken in by our men, to the continued detriment of our women. As a nation we have seen the blossoming of the darker, destructive aspects of masculinity, with the very people elected to run our country leading the charge, reducing many of our national ideals to their lowest common denominator instead of exemplifying a more enlightened ideology for our future. Society had justÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Women are portrayed as objects, something to be owned, used and thrown away, with their primary value based on the sexual gratification of men (Wright Tokunaga, 2016). Women in American society are expected to conform to the stand ards of beauty outlined in advertising, even though those images are unnatural and enhanced through Photoshop. Social media shows videos of how the photo of a real model, with all her natural beauty and flaws, is manipulated; the flaws erased, eyes unrealistically enlarged, thighs reduced and cellulite smoothed away. The direct effect of objectification on women in our society has already been linked to an increase in eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia. The images of women in advertising are role models real women can never live up to, and these unrealistic ideals have become the standard by which men measure women. Watson, Marszalek, Dispenza and Davids (2015) conducted a study on the effect of objectification on African American and White women in an attempt to compare/contrast the experiences of objectification on women, concentrating on two extremes of the racial dynamic in our society. The results of the research showed the increase in anxiety, depression and psycho logical distress, including fear of assault/rape, reported by the women included in the study in response to the continual sexual harassment these women experienced. It also noted that African American women experienced these effects at a much higherShow MoreRelated Gender Roles in the Media Essay3973 Words Ã |Ã 16 Pageswrapped in a pink or blue blanket, a childs gender is unmistakable. From this point on, they will continuously be bombarded with the socialization into their gender by many sources. One of the main sources of this socialization is media, more specifically television. The purpose of this paper is to describe gender roles and stereotypes, and to take a closer look at how the medias representation and portrayal of males and females affects children. Gender differences are the sets of attributesRead MoreEssay about Dehumanization of Humanity1341 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages While most slaves experienced the dehumanization that slavery thrust upon them, every slave experienced it in a unique and individual fashion. For Fredrick Douglass the dehumanization occurred in a physical fashion, whereas Harriet JacobsÃ¢â¬â¢s objectification was through mental oppression. Fredrick Douglass always was a slave since the day he was born. While his entrapment began in a somewhat mild way with basic chores and tasks being assigned to him, he had the responsibilities of manhood thrustRead MoreImpact of Print Media on Society10439 Words Ã |Ã 42 PagesTHE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE DOVE EVOLUTION FILM AS A ONE-SHOT MEDIA LITERACY TREATMENT by DANIEL AARON WHEELER A.A. Alabama Christian College 1979 B.A. Western Illinois University 1989 M.A. University of Alabama 1994 A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education in the Department of Educational Studies in the College of Education at the University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida Spring Term 2009 Major Professors: Cynthia J. HutchinsonRead MoreMass Medi A Positive Side And A Negative Side3367 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pageschildhood educational intervention (cited in references).Ã¢â¬ These positive outcomes include learning about the world which includes health and safety, social reasoning and attitudes, and also cognitive literacy and numeracy. Ã¢â¬Å"The significant, positive effects of cognitive, learning, and socio-emotional outcomes observed in the current meta-analysis represent real educational benefits for the millions of preschool-age children around the world who visit Ã¢â¬ËSesame StreetÃ¢â¬â¢ via their televisions,Ã¢â¬ says Mares
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Friday, April 10, 2020
Purpose Of Education The purpose of our modern education: The delicate tools necessary for our intellectual workshop are achieved by schooling. I suspect that our best tools are realized rather automatically, but if there is to be outside influence, then, best it is done early, as the human mind matures all too rapidly. Children are not consumed with anxiety to learn anything; least of all has it ever crossed their minds that they must learn English. How shall we teach it to them, when the few of us who have begun to know what it is know it to be a issue of accommodations, a thing with which order, method, and all that the developing mind first apprehends and rests upon have nothing to do with a single word. A kind of miraculous flowering of man's still unconscious wisdom, preserved to us as a compensation for our many blunderings, as a reward for our patience in confusion and our fundamental faith in life. Education might be defined as a social process by which, skills and beliefs, attitudes and ideas of the previous generations are passed to the new generation; it is a process, which is necessary for the maintenance, achievement and development of man in society. Gerstner States, "in the public schools we have clung tenaciously to the ideas and techniques of earlier decades and even previous centuries," proving that each generation depends on the preceding generation. This definition assumes a biological view of society, one that grows and evolves with each new generation depending on the growth of previous generations. We all come into this world uniform, and, from the start, we are obliged to turn to others; and while we need a lot of help when we are young, nature has compensated by building into the young a susceptibility to learning. So, no matter what one's view is of what an educational system should be, most will agree, best to start in while young. What is the first lesson to be? What each individual needs to know is the difference between what is naturally right and what is naturally wrong. The second lesson to be learned, is, that the individual is better off doing what is naturally right. How does one teach morals? This is an old dilemma, the teaching of virtue. It is a dilemma largely because virtue is immeasurable. Virtue is instilled likely by repeated actions, a process of trial and error, beginning at the mother's knee and to be continued by all those with whom the child has close connections, and this would certainly include the child's teachers. It takes a "good" teacher, one full of great skills and a glow for presentation of the subject; it is particularly difficult when the subject is morals or virtue. We, adult and child alike, find ourselves in a vast market where the "Culture Standardizers" provide an immediate and sensual gratification to all comers. The question before us is, what is the importance of education? One goal, as Spring states in his book American Education, is to produce reasonable citizens, ones that "commonly hold a political creed or else society is doomed to political strife or chaos" Education should be the essential method of building humane, free, and democratic societies. The aims of education are many: the transmission of knowledge; training for occupations, careers, and democratic citizenship; and the encouragement of moral growth. Dewey states, "the subject matter of education consists of bodies of information and of skills that have been worked out in the past; therefore, the chief business of the school is to transmit them to the next generation." Among its vital purposes should also be an attempt to develop the capacity for critical intelligence in both the individual and the community. Unfortunately, the schools today are being increasingly replaced by the mass media as the primary institutions of public information and education. Although the electronic media provide unparalleled opportunities for extending cultural enrichment and enjoyment, there has been a serious misdirection of their purposes. In some societies, the media serve as the vehicle of propaganda and indoctrination. In democratic society television, radio, films, and mass publishing too often cater to the lowest common denominator and have become dull wastelands. We need to believe that television directors and producers have an obligation to remedy the balance and revise their programming. The essential answer to any question usually comes out of its definition. Considering the definition set out at the first of this section, then, we might say that essentially that education is a socialization process. Is this
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Positive and Negative Effect of Globalization Essay Example Positive and Negative Effect of Globalization Essay Positive and Negative Effect of Globalization Essay Topic: Discuss the positive and negative effects of globalization on the world today. The term globalization is the process of transformation of local phenomena into global ones. It is when different countries start to connect together as a whole, when people around the world are more linked to each other than ever before, when information and money flow more speedily and when goods and services produced in one part of the world are increasingly obtainable in all parts of the world. And it has brought both positive and negative impacts to the world. Therefore, in this essay, both the positive and negative effects of globalization on the world will be discussed. First of all, let us look at the impacts that globalization brought to the global economy. Globalization has brought up the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. Countries move to market sectors that they are better at, which means that the labor in a country is going to do what itÃ¢â¬â¢s best at; for example, there is no need for American to do manufacturing when someone in China can do it better. Countries in the globe trade goods with each other, and it hastened the trading rate. By trading with each other, knowledge and technologies exchanged and was shared among countries; therefore, the world innovated and improved faster. Globalization not only exchanged ideas and knowledge but also created positive competition between countries. Secondly, the trend of globalization also provides the people of the developing countries different kinds of jobs to live their lives and the developed ones a great many benefits. Globalization has created the concept of outsourcing; for example, work, such as software development, customer support, marketing, accounting and insurance, is outsourced to developing countries like India. Thus, the company that outsourced the work enjoys the benefit of lower costs because the wages in developing countries is far lower than that of developed countries and they can also reduce environmental problems, such as air pollution, caused by the smoke from the factories. And workers in the developing countries get employment; the developing countries also get access to the latest technology. However, the effects of globalization are not all positive. Globalization connected the global economy together. For the negative impacts, since the markets are all globally connected together when one market falls, the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s economy collapses. Let us take the United State financial crisis that is currently happening for an example. The US market turned into a disaster because of sub-primary mortgages and the products derived from them. Financial companies started to give out mortgages without checking peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s credibility. Therefore, people who could not afford mortgages also got mortgages. Eventually, the crisis started because people could not pay for the mortgages anymore. Banks and financial companies have all these houses that people would not buy because no one has the money to afford a new house. Finally, banks and financial companies went bankrupt. US stock markets collapsed. Other countries got affected because the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest buyer, United State, suddenly stopped buying. WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s economy slowed down and, eventually, the market collapsed. The second negative effect is an environmental effect. After global economy rose, corporations started to produce more and more, because people started to ask for more. However, in order to produce the most in the shorted amount of time, the factories would have to break the environmental regulations and, of course, care less for the workers. Globalization brought up the global economy and made the corporations have to do things that are immoral and unethical. Most importantly, it is hard to find someone to be responsible for the consequences, because the globe is connected together and Ã¢â¬Å"everyoneÃ¢â¬ should be blamed for the consequences. In conclusion, I would like to end the essay with some hopes. The globe has globalized. There are both positive and negative impacts of globalization. Why not use the positive impacts to try to defeat those of the negatives. Since the global is all connected together, the countries have the advantage to share ideas and solve problems together. The countries could use the connectedness to share knowledge and ideas to solve major environmental and global problems that no country can solve alone. Therefore, I believe that globalization is overall good for the globe. Although there are some negative impacts; however, the positive impacts could overcome those negative impacts and make the world a better place.
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Econometrics - Speech or Presentation Example The coefficient estimate (Ã ²2 = 0.37) suggests that there will be 37% increase in growth if the geographical location of a nation goes up by at least one units. Negative coefficients such as Ã ²3 being -0.62 suggest a decrease in growth by 62% if we increase countries residing in Asia to the model by 1 unit. On a similar note, Ã ²4 of -1.00 suggests a decrease in growth by 100% if we increase the number of countries residing in Africa by one unit. Finally, and Ã ²5 of -0.25 suggests that there will be a decrease, of up to 25%, income per capita if we increase countries residing in other parts of the world. The current model, as it is in the equation, cannot bring out the different effect on income per capita that is brought about by variable DAfrica,i and DOther,i. this because the independent variables DAsia, and Dother, will automatically be correlated as Asia is part of the rest of the world. Therefore, we will have two variable that describe a similar effect on growth. A fall by up to 62 percent is realized as a result of a decline of one unit on the income per capita of the Asian countries. Conversely, the income per capita will decline by up to 100 percent if there is an increase of a single unit on the countries in Africa. Intrinsically, there is a foresighted mean drop on the income per capita of 48 percent in the two continents. Adopting raw score instead of absolute score will cause the estimate of Lati smaller than that of Ri. This is from the fact that the two independent variables employing dissimilar measuring units. There will be a reduction of the second model for the R2 and standard error. and that heteroscedasticity was a concern in model 1 in table 1, then model 1 would not have a constant error variance. As such, to test whether heteroscedasticity is present in model 1 (table 1) or not, the test hypothesis would be such