Monday, May 25, 2020
Nikee. Apple. Covergirl. Weight Watchers. Why do all these seemingly unrelated names sound familiar? That answer is simple: advertising. Advertising, a prodigious business, is a way to market a product or service to the public consumer through TV, internet, billboards, and other outlets. However, this over exposure to unnecessary and unwanted propaganda brings about personal struggles, since ads scream about the absolute desire for self impeccability while simultaneously destroying the spirits of those who listen. This industryÃ¢â¬â¢s image of Ã¢â¬Å"normalcyÃ¢â¬ often alters oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self image. Although many see the benefits of consumer marketing, the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s depiction of idealized perfection reveals that manipulating people through advertisementsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In addition, advertising feeds from mob mentality, convincing people a product will change their lives by deeming it fashionable or sophisticated. It bypasses logical thinking to take contr ol of how people view themselves and their Ã¢â¬Å"need for esteem. People want and need to be respected and we need to feel good about ourselves. And this is where much advertising lives, often because we are selling products that people really do not need. LÃ¢â¬â¢OrealÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËBecause youÃ¢â¬â¢re worth itÃ¢â¬â¢ is the perfect exampleÃ¢â¬ (Madigan 83). For this reason, expectations of a person are manipulated to fit the wants of the industry to sell products. These people are affected since they feel as if they have no choice in what to wear, how their body should appear to others, and which brands they buy. It all comes down to the need to be apart of something bigger, instead of sticking out from the crowd. EXAMPLE SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢s deeply ingrained standards for women created by the media demonstrate the corruption of self image as seen through ads from the 1950s that feed off of insecurities. History demonstrates the obsession with perfection by showing how women were viewed before and after advertising influence, Ã¢â¬Å"Men wouldn t look at me when I was skinnyÃ¢â¬ ¦ Since IÃ¢â¬â¢ve gained 10 pounds, I have all the dates I wantÃ¢â¬ (Lewis). Ads such as this swayed women from the 1950s to 1960s to physically appear in a
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Scaled scores are a type of exam score. They are commonly used by testing companies that administer high stakes exams, such as admissions, certification and licensure exams. Scaled scores are also used for K-12 Common Core testing and other exams that assess student skills and evaluate learning progress. Raw Scores vs. Scaled Scores The first step to understanding scaled scores is to learn how they differ from raw scores. A raw score represents the number of exam questions you answer correctly. For example, if an exam has 100 questions, and you get 80 of them correct, your raw score is 80. Your percent-correct score, which is a type of raw score, is 80%, and your grade is a B-. A scaled score is a raw score that has been adjusted and converted to a standardized scale. If your raw score is 80 (because you got 80 out of 100 questions correct), that score is adjusted and converted into a scaled score. Raw scores can be converted linearly or nonlinearly. Scaled Score Example The ACT is an example of an exam that uses linear transformation to convert raw scores to scaled scores. The following conversation chart shows how raw scores from each section of the ACT are transformed into scaled scores.Ã Raw Score English Raw Score Math Raw Score Reading Raw Score Science Scaled Score 75 60 40 40 36 72-74 58-59 39 39 35 71 57 38 38 34 70 55-56 37 37 33 68-69 54 35-36 - 32 67 52-53 34 36 31 66 50-51 33 35 30 65 48-49 32 34 29 63-64 45-47 31 33 28 62 43-44 30 32 27 60-61 40-42 29 30-31 26 58-59 38-39 28 28-29 25 56-57 36-37 27 26-27 24 53-55 34-35 25-26 24-25 23 51-52 32-33 24 22-23 22 48-50 30-31 22-23 21 21 45-47 29 21 19-20 20 43-44 27-28 19-20 17-18 19 41-42 24-26 18 16 18 39-40 21-23 17 14-15 17 36-38 17-20 15-16 13 16 32-35 13-16 14 12 15 29-31 11-12 12-13 11 14 27-28 8-10 11 10 13 25-26 7 9-10 9 12 23-24 5-6 8 8 11 20-22 4 6-7 7 10 18-19 - - 5-6 9 15-17 3 5 - 8 12-14 - 4 4 7 10-11 2 3 3 6 8-9 - - 2 5 6-7 1 2 - 4 4-5 - - 1 3 2-3 - 1 - 2 0-1 0 0 0 1 Source: ACT.org The Equating Process The scaling process creates a base scale that serves as a reference for another process known as equating. The equating process is necessary to account for differences between multiple versions of the same test. Although test makers try to keep the difficulty level of a test the same from one version to the next, differences are inevitable. Equating allows the test maker to statistically adjust scores so that the average performance on version one of the test is equal to average performance on version two of the test, version three of the test and so on. After undergoing both scaling and equating, scaled scores should be interchangeable and easily comparable no matter which version of the test was taken.Ã Equating Example Lets look at an example to see how the equating process can impact scaled scores on standardized tests.Ã Imagine that say you and a friend are taking the SAT. You will both be taking the exam at the same test center, but you will be taking the test in January, and your friend will be taking the test in February. You have different testing dates, and there is no guarantee that you will both take the same version of the SAT. You may see one form of the test, while your friend sees another. Although both tests have similar content, the questions are not exactly the same. After taking the SAT, you and your friend get together and compare your results. You both got a raw score of 50 on the math section, but your scaled score is 710 and your friends scaled score is 700. Your pal wonders what happened since both of you got the same number of questions correct. But the explanation is pretty simple; you each took a different version of the test, and your version was more difficult than his. To get the same scaled score on the SAT, he would have needed to answer more questions correctly than you. Test makers that use an equating process use a different formula to create a unique scale for each version of the exam. This means that there is no one raw-to-scale-score conversion chart that can be used for every version of the exam. That is why, in our previous example, a raw score of 50 was converted into 710 on one day and 700 on another day. Keep this in mind as you are taking practice tests and using conversion charts to transform your raw score into a scaled score. Purpose of Scaled Scores Raw scores are definitely easier to calculate than scaled scores. But testing companies want to make sure that test scores can be fairly and accurately compared even if test takers take different versions, or forms, of the test on different dates. Scaled scores allow for accurate comparisons and ensure that people who took a more difficult test are not penalized, and people who took a less difficult test are not given an unfair advantage.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Analysis of Gender: Objectification of Women, Emotional Literacy and Gender Roles Introduction Gender in American society is a hot topic right now on many levels. The spotlight on how women have been portrayed in our culture now shines on the negative messages being taken to heart and embodied by our women. These are the very same images and messages being taken in by our men, to the continued detriment of our women. As a nation we have seen the blossoming of the darker, destructive aspects of masculinity, with the very people elected to run our country leading the charge, reducing many of our national ideals to their lowest common denominator instead of exemplifying a more enlightened ideology for our future. Society had justÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Women are portrayed as objects, something to be owned, used and thrown away, with their primary value based on the sexual gratification of men (Wright Tokunaga, 2016). Women in American society are expected to conform to the stand ards of beauty outlined in advertising, even though those images are unnatural and enhanced through Photoshop. Social media shows videos of how the photo of a real model, with all her natural beauty and flaws, is manipulated; the flaws erased, eyes unrealistically enlarged, thighs reduced and cellulite smoothed away. The direct effect of objectification on women in our society has already been linked to an increase in eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia. The images of women in advertising are role models real women can never live up to, and these unrealistic ideals have become the standard by which men measure women. Watson, Marszalek, Dispenza and Davids (2015) conducted a study on the effect of objectification on African American and White women in an attempt to compare/contrast the experiences of objectification on women, concentrating on two extremes of the racial dynamic in our society. The results of the research showed the increase in anxiety, depression and psycho logical distress, including fear of assault/rape, reported by the women included in the study in response to the continual sexual harassment these women experienced. It also noted that African American women experienced these effects at a much higherShow MoreRelated Gender Roles in the Media Essay3973 Words Ã |Ã 16 Pageswrapped in a pink or blue blanket, a childs gender is unmistakable. From this point on, they will continuously be bombarded with the socialization into their gender by many sources. One of the main sources of this socialization is media, more specifically television. The purpose of this paper is to describe gender roles and stereotypes, and to take a closer look at how the medias representation and portrayal of males and females affects children. Gender differences are the sets of attributesRead MoreEssay about Dehumanization of Humanity1341 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages While most slaves experienced the dehumanization that slavery thrust upon them, every slave experienced it in a unique and individual fashion. For Fredrick Douglass the dehumanization occurred in a physical fashion, whereas Harriet JacobsÃ¢â¬â¢s objectification was through mental oppression. Fredrick Douglass always was a slave since the day he was born. While his entrapment began in a somewhat mild way with basic chores and tasks being assigned to him, he had the responsibilities of manhood thrustRead MoreImpact of Print Media on Society10439 Words Ã |Ã 42 PagesTHE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE DOVE EVOLUTION FILM AS A ONE-SHOT MEDIA LITERACY TREATMENT by DANIEL AARON WHEELER A.A. Alabama Christian College 1979 B.A. Western Illinois University 1989 M.A. University of Alabama 1994 A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education in the Department of Educational Studies in the College of Education at the University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida Spring Term 2009 Major Professors: Cynthia J. HutchinsonRead MoreMass Medi A Positive Side And A Negative Side3367 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pageschildhood educational intervention (cited in references).Ã¢â¬ These positive outcomes include learning about the world which includes health and safety, social reasoning and attitudes, and also cognitive literacy and numeracy. Ã¢â¬Å"The significant, positive effects of cognitive, learning, and socio-emotional outcomes observed in the current meta-analysis represent real educational benefits for the millions of preschool-age children around the world who visit Ã¢â¬ËSesame StreetÃ¢â¬â¢ via their televisions,Ã¢â¬ says Mares
Tuesday, May 5, 2020